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Aashoora was the tenth of the lunar month of Moharram, year 61 A.H., when Imam Hossain (PBUH) -the grandson of the Prophet Mohammad (PBUH&HP)- and his family and companions were brutally martyred.

Abd and Oboodyyat

Abd is a word which does not have a true equivalent in English. A true Abd of Allah is a servant of Allah; one who realizes that every thing he has, is from Allah, and he owns nothing; one who loves the All-Knowing and Benevolent Allah with all his existence; one who feels that he owes everything to Allah; one who -happily and proudly- submits to Allah; one who realizes that he, himself, belongs to Allah... . Oboodyyat is the concept of being an Abd. As imam Ali (PBUH) has said, his pride and honor was the fact that he was an Abd of Allah, and Allah was his Lord.



Ahl-Ol-Bait is a given title for a special group of people. According to Qur'an and teachings of the Prophet, the Ahl-Ol-Bait are only the Prophet, the Amir-Ol-Mo'menin (Ali son of Abi-Taaleb), Fatima (daughter of the Prophet), their two sons Hassan and Hossain, and nine consecutive descendants of Hossain (Peace Be Upon Them, PBUT). Qur'an indicates that they are immaculate and pure.




Amir-Ol-Mo'menin, the Commander of the Faithful, is a title chosen by Allah for only Ali (PBUH) and no one else. Throughout history, especially in the world of Islam, many people have used this title for themselves, but only in Imam Ali's case, the title is

Allah-bestowed, and it indicates that only Ali, after the Prophet(PBUT), has the Allah-given superiority to command the Faithful, this title is not even for the 11 infallible Imams after Ali, in fact they have also obeyed Ali, and Ali obeyed the Prophet, and the Prophet obeyed Allah.





Baqyyat-O-Llah is one of the Allah-given titles of Imam Mahdi (PBUH). Baqyyat-O-Llah means the one whom Allah has kept alive and remaining. By His Omnipotence, Allah has bestowed a long life to Imam Mahdi (PBUH), so that he would fulfill Allah's Promise of Monotheism and Justice, given by all Prophets (PBUT), on earth. Also, other chosen-ones have had Divinely bestowed long lives, such as Jesus (PBUH) who is alive and in heavens, but Imam Mahdi (PBUH) is living on earth among people.


Disappearance (Occultation)

Disappearance of the twelfth Imam (the Savior) means that, he is living on earth but no one knows where; On many occasions, we may get to see him but we do not know who he is, while he knows every single one of us better than ourselves; or he is present and we can not see him. During Disappearance, he -by Allah’s Command- is fully aware of our conditions, thoughts and deeds; he is continuously helping and guiding; his “walaayat” (Divinely bestowed lordship and guardianship)is constantly upon the entire Existence.



Faraj (Divine Relief)


The exalted and sublime position of the Prophet Mohammad and his Ahl-Ol-Bait(PBUT) is beyond everyone's imagination. They are the most blessed and beloved creations of God. They are the holders of Divine secrets. Their Divinely bestowed Knowledge and Power has been unique among humankind. Ignorant people of their times have had blind minds and hearts, and they could not have comprehended the brilliance of these shining stars, so Mohammad and his progeny have lived like candles in the winds of ignorance. Faraj(Divine Relief) of the Prophet and his Ahl-Ol-Bait shall be when their true value is recognized better, and their light will become manifest, and existence shall be brightened by their brilliance. Appearance of Mahdi (Peace Be Upon Him, PBUH) shall be “Faraj”, it shall be the rising of Mohammad's and his progeny's sun. O' Allah! Bless Mohammad and his progeny, and hasten their Faraj.





Fasting in Islam is either obligatory which is to be performed -based on certain specifications- in the month of Ramadan; or, optional, as directed by Mohammad and his progeny (PBUT), for many different reasons, always with the intention (Nyyat, Nyyah) of getting closer to Allah.



Fetrat (Fetrah)


The word Fetrat means creation. According to Qur'an, every human being of all times and places is born into this world based on Divine Fetrat. Humans, prior to their earthly existence in these terrestrial bodies, were as “lights” and… in worlds such as “the world of Dhar”. There, Allah introduced Himself and His chosen-ones to all humans. Every one is born in this world based on that background but does not remember those events specifically. At times when trials and hardships cause helplessness and hopelessness, an innate remembrance of that knowledge, and not usually of the events, happens for human and therefore, human feels a familiar and heart-warming love and attraction towards Allah and His appointees, and that can help him find and choose the Right Path.





Ghadir is the name of a pond located in the Johfah desert between the cities of Medina and Mecca. By this pond, the Prophet Mohammad (PBUH&HP), two months before his departure from this world, gave his most unforgettable Sermon called by the same name, in which the holy Prophet formally introduced Imam Ali(PBUH) as his Divine Successor, and by Allah's command, the Prophet made a Covenant with humankind -present and not, born and yet to be born, throughout the ages until the end of the world- to obey Ali and his progeny, in order to remain on the Right Path towards Salvation and eternity. Over one hundred thousand Muslims pledge their allegiance with the Prophet and Imam Ali at that time by the pond of Ghadir. This event is celebrated each year by the Shi'ah, and is called “Eid-Ol-Ghadir”.



Hadith (Narration)


In the Shi'ah documents, any saying originated by the infallible Prophet or the Ahl-Ol-Bait (PBUT)is known as Hadith or Narration or Narrative. Experienced Shi'ah scholars and scientists, throughout the ages, using scientific methods, have studied, researched and proven genuineness and truthfulness of both the contents of trusted Narratives, and the personality and credibility of Narrators. Authentic narratives are the inspired Knowledge, from Allah to the Prophet, and the inherited Knowledge, from the Prophet to the Ahl-Ol-Bait. These heavenly words are the heart and spirit of Qur'an, and as commanded by God, the Prophet has declared the Ahl-Ol-Bait inseparable from Qur'an until the Judgment Day.





Hajj is a religious journey to Mecca which all Muslims, if physically and financially able, are ordained to take at least once in their lives. The rituals of this spiritual journey, as taught by the Prophet Mohammad(PBUH&HP), guide the pilgrims through a brief and educational period of separation from worldly values and ties so that humankind may learn and practice thankfulness, humbleness and ... before the one and only Creator. Therefore even the garments that pilgrims wear during Hajj, are also a manifestation of this deep and meaningful Divine goal.

Individual, social and spiritual aspects of Hajj are plenty, another one is that all Muslims from every part of the world gather in one place, exchange ideas, get to know each other and help one another. This international congress is one of the largest of its kind in the world.




Hojjat (Hojjah)


In Arabic, the word Hojjat means proof and reason. Certain human beings are introduced as the Hojjats (Hojaj) of Allah; such people, through Allah's bestowal, possess certain Divine Proof and Knowledge and therefore, they do not guess in regard to the Tanzil and Ta'wil of Allah's Word; they are the means through whom, Divine blessings are bestowed upon the rest of beings. Thus, existence of a Hojjat at all times is necessary. The infallible Prophets and Imams (PBUT) are such chosen people.





In general, the word imam in Arabic, means leader. In Islamic societies, the title Imam is widely used for different religious leaders chosen by people or by other religious personalities. But according to the Shi'ah belief, based on teachings of Qur'an and the Prophet himself, Imam also has a specific meaning, and that is when this position and title is bestowed by Allah upon an infallible person. In this case, the key point is the Imam's God-given infallibility which means the Imam's Divinely bestowed wisdom, insight, knowledge, power, benevolence, love and ... guide him to be perfect and infallible.

Therefore, the 12 compassionate and infallible Imams are to be fully obeyed by all Believers who love and trust the All-loving and All-knowing Almighty. Their Divinely ordained leadership is known as the "Imamate" in the Shi'ah texts.



Imamate (Imamat)


For Imamate please refer to description of "Imam".



Infallible (Ma'soom)


Based on the Shi'ah belief, the Prophet Muhammad, his daughter Fatima, and his 12 God-chosen Successors, and previous holy Prophets and… (PBUT) are considered infallible and immaculate (Ma'soom). It means that their Divinely bestowed knowledge, insight, gnosis, love,… and consideration of God are at levels which guide them to choose, freely, not to commit sins. Their hearts only beat for God and serving God.





According to Qur'an, Jinns are a group of God's creatures, like humans, birds and alike. Just like humans, Jinns also reproduce; some choose to become believers and some do not; some decide to be good and some evil. In their normal forms, Jinns can not be seen by human eyes. A noteworthy point is that, Angels and spirits are different phenomena and creations.





Ka'bah is located in the city of Mecca. By God's command, Ka'bah was built by Prophets Ibrahim (Abraham) and his son Is(h)mael (PBUT). If physically and financially able, Muslims are to go on special pilgrimage of this blessed place (Hajj) at least once in their lives. During their pilgrimage, Muslims leave certain specified worldly desires behind so that they may concentrate on the Creator, and the true and eternal goals of human life. Also, Ka'bah is a center for Muslims around the world to get to know each other, become united, and help one another. The key point is that Ka'bah is considered blessed because Allah has blessed it, and its pilgrimage is special because it is God's obedience, i.e. God's Will is absolutely the most important matter.





Karbala is the land of Naynawa located in today's Iraq, where the ever-remembered Aashoora happened.